Saturday, October 23, 2010
Thursday, October 21, 2010
Tuesday, October 19, 2010
Lockheed developed the shortened fuselage L-1011 TriStar 500 as a long range, smaller capacity derivative of the TriStar 200.
Launched in August 1976, the key changes incorporated in the 500 over the standard L-1011s are the 4.11m (13ft 6in) shorter fuselage, greater takeoff weights, increased fuel capacity and more powerful RB211-524 engines. The shortened fuselage reduces seating capacity to a maximum of 330, 70 less than the standard length TriStars, while the below deck galleys that had been a feature of the L-1011 family were replaced with conventional main deck units.
Other improvements include enhanced wing-to-fuselage and fuselage-to-rear engine intake fairings, automatic braking and automatic thrust control. Most have three, rather than four, doors/emergency exits on each side of the fuselage. The design changes combine to give the 500 a maximum range of 11,260km (6100nm), approximately 2000km (1300nm) further than the long range 200.
The TriStar 500 first flew on October 16 1978 and entered service with British Airways in May 1979.
Soon after, the 500 also introduced the active aileron improvements first pioneered on the Advanced TriStar, which was the original prototype TriStar fitted with a number of advanced features intended for introduction to the TriStar production line. The Advanced TriStar incorporated increased span wings to reduce drag, with active, automatic operation of the ailerons used to cope with the increased weight and aerodynamic loads instead of strengthening the wing structure.
The first 500 with active ailerons and extended wingtips flew in November 1979 and deliveries of 500s with the new wing tip extension began the following year, while in 1981 it became a standard feature. Lockheed began retrofitting the active aileron wingtip extension to all previously built TriStar 500s from 1981. Production ceased in 1983 after 50 had been built, although the last 500 was not delivered until 1985.
In December 1982 Britain's Royal Air Force bought 6 TriStar 500s from British Airways and contracted Marshall of Cambridge (Engineering) Ltd for the conversions. Four of them were converted to tanker-transports as TriStar K1. The conversion involves the installation of paired HDUs (Hose Drum Units) in the lower rear fuselage, underfloor fuel tanks in the fore and aft baggage compartments, adding an additional 100,060lbs (45,385kg) of fuel, a closed circuit TV camera to monitor refuelling, and military communications and navigation equipment. The aircraft are also equipped with a refuelling probe above the forward fuselage.
The first flight was made on July 9, 1985. As full passenger seating is available in the cabin, the K1 is an excellent aircraft for squadron deployments, able to refuel their aircraft in the air and at the same time carrying squadron personnel and supplies.
The other two aircraft, and two of the K1s, were converted to TriStar KC1 with the same modifications as the K1 but with an additional large cargo door in the port side front fuselage, a freight handling system, and a strengthened floor. They can carry cargo on pallets and 35 passengers. The first KC1 was flown in 1988.
Three more, ex Pan Am, TriStar 500s were bought in 1984, two of them serving as troop transport TriStar C2s. They retain the normal passenger seating and are not equipped with a flight refuelling probe. It was planned to convert the third one to a tanker K2, but these plans were abandoned and it was delivered instead as a TriStar C2A, with a new interior, military avionics, and the digital autopilot replaced by the same analog autopilot as fitted to the K1 and KC1. The MTOW for all RAF TriStars was increased to 540,000lbs (244,945kg). They serve with 216 Squadron.
In late 2002 28 of the 50 TriStar 500s built were in active service, 16 in airline service, 3 as corporate transport, and 9 in RAF military service.
|Passengers||330, max. 400|
|Propulsion||3 Turbofan Engines|
|Engine Model||Rolls-Royce RB.211-524B|
|Engine Power (each)||222,4 kN||50000 lbf|
|Speed||974 km/h||526 kts|
|Service Ceiling||12.802 m||42.000 ft|
|Range||9.653 km||5.212 NM|
|Empty Weight||109.229 kg||240.809 lbs|
|max. Takeoff Weight||224.982 kg||496.000 lbs|
|Wing Span||47,35 m||155,3 ft|
|Wing Area||321,1 m²||3456 ft²|
|Length||50,05 m||164,2 ft|
|Height||16,87 m||55,3 ft|
|Production Status||out of production|
|Data for (Version)||Lockheed L-1011-500|
Monday, October 18, 2010
Airbus first began studies on a very large 500 seat airliner in the early 1990s. The European manufacturer saw developing a competitor and successor to the Boeing 747 as a strategic play to end Boeing's dominance of the very large airliner market and round out Airbus' product line-up.
Airbus began engineering development work on such an aircraft, then designated the A3XX, in June 1994. Airbus studied numerous design configurations for the A3XX and gave serious consideration to a single deck aircraft which would have seated 12 abreast and twin vertical tails. However Airbus settled upon a twin deck configuration, largely because of the significantly lighter structure required.
Key design aims include the ability to use existing airport infrastructure with little modifications to the airports, and direct operating costs per seat 15-20% less than those for the 747-400. With 49% more floor space and only 35% more seating than the previous largest aircraft, Airbus is ensuring wider seats and aisles for more passenger comfort. Using the most advanced technologies, the A380 is also designed to have 10-15% more range, lower fuel burn and emissions, and less noise.
The A380 features an advanced version of the Airbus common two crew cockpit, with pull-out keyboards for the pilots, extensive use of composite materials such as GLARE (an aluminium/glass fibre composite), and four 302 to 374kN (68,000 to 84,000lb) class Rolls-Royce Trent 900 or Engine Alliance (General Electric/Pratt & Whitney) GP7200 turbofans now under development.
Several A380 models are planned: the basic aircraft is the 555 seat A380-800 (launch customer Emirates). The 590 ton MTOW 10,410km (5620nm) A380-800F freighter will be able to carry a 150 tonne payload and is due to enter service in 2008 (launch customer FedEx). Potential future models will include the shortened, 480 seat A380-700, and the stretched, 656 seat, A380-900.
On receipt of the required 50th launch order commitment, the Airbus A3XX was renamed A380 and officially launched on December 19, 2000. In early 2001 the general configuration design was frozen, and metal cutting for the first A380 component occurred on January 23, 2002, at Nantes in France. In 2002 more than 6000 people were working on A380 development.
On January 18, 2005, the first Airbus A380 was officially revealed in a lavish ceremony, attended by 5000 invited guests including the French, German, British and Spanish president and prime ministers, representing the countries that invested heavily in the 10-year, €10 billion+ ($13 billion+) aircraft program, and the CEOs of the 14 A380 customers, who had placed firm orders for 149 aircraft by then.
The out of sequence A380 designation was chosen as the "8" represents the cross-section of the twin decks. The first flight is scheduled for March 2005, and the entry into commercial service, with Singapore Airlines, is scheduled for March 2006.
Apart from the prime contractors in France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Spain, components for the A380 airframe are also manufactured by industral partners in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Finland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States. A380 final assembly is taking place in Toulouse, France, with interior fitment in Hamburg, Germany. Major A380 assemblies are transported to Toulouse by ship, barge and road.
On July 24, 2000, Emirates became the first customer making a firm order commitment, followed by Air France, International Lease Finance Corporation (ILFC), Singapore Airlines, Qantas and Virgin Atlantic. Together these companies completed the 50 orders needed to launch the programme.
Later, the following companies also ordered the A380: FedEx (the launch customer for the A380-800F freighter), Qatar Airways, Lufthansa, Korean Air, Malaysia Airlines, Etihad Airways, Thai Airways and UPS.
Four prototypes will be used in a 2200 hours flight test programme lasting 15 months.
Sunday, October 17, 2010
The Bell 412 is a utility helicopter manufactured by Bell Helicopter. It is a development of the Bell 212 model, the major difference being the composite four-blade main rotor.
Design and development:
Development began in the late 1970s with two Bell 212 being converted into 412 prototypes. An advanced four blade main rotor with a smaller diameter replaced the 212's two blade rotor. A Bell 412 prototype first flew in August 1979. The initial model was certified in January 1981 with the deliveries commencing in the same month.
The 412 model was followed by the 412SP (Special Performance) version featuring larger fuel capacity, higher takeoff weight and optional seating arrangements. In 1991, the 412HP (High Performance) variant with improved transmission replaced the SP version in production. The current production version, 412EP (Enhanced Performance), is equipped with a dual digital automatic flight control system.
Over 700 Model 412s (including 260 by AgustaWestland) have been built.
Spesification of Bell 412 and Nbell-412 :
Crew: 1-2 pilots
Capacity: up to 13 passengers, maximum external load of 4,500 lb (2,040 kg)
Length: 56 ft 1 in (17.1 m)
Rotor diameter: 46 ft (14.0 m)
Height: 15 ft (4.6 m)
Disc area: 1,662 ft² (154.4 m²)
Empty weight: 6,789 lb (3,079 kg)
Max takeoff weight: 11,900 lb (5,397 kg)
Powerplant: 2× Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6T-3BE Twin-Pac turboshafts, 900 shp (671 kW) each
Fuselage length: 43 ft (13.1 m)
Maximum speed: 140 knots (161 mph, 259 km/h)
Cruise speed: 122 knots (140 mph, 226 km/h)
Range: 402 nmi (463 mi, 745 km)
Service ceiling: 20,000 ft (6,096 m)
Rate of climb: 1,350 ft/min (6.86 m/s)
Power/mass: 0.2663 hp/lb (437 W/kg)
The Version of Bell 412 :
-Search And Rescue
-Medical Support/Ambulance Mission
-Oil Industry Operations
-Law Enforcement Operations
Bell 412 version Indonesia Aerospace (IAe)
The NBELL-412 is a medium size 15-places turbine powered helicopter incorporating a four bladed rotor system.
The advanced designed rotor system permits smooth and quiet operations with the advanced of being able to fly at high speed.
The standard 412 is certified in accordance with FAA-FAR Part-29 Transport Category Rotorcraft, and it is qualified for day or night operation under visual flight conditions.
With cruise speed of 130 knots and range of up to 402 nautical miles, the NBELL-412 will be a particularly desirable aircraft for transport mission, providing a fast, efficient fuel consumption, reliable, low direct operation cost, as its low risk design priorities : High safety, Low Maintenance, High availability and Low Cost of Operation.
With more than 5,405 pounds (2,452 kilograms) internal use load capacity plus a cabin with wide doors for easy loading makes the NBELL-412 ideal for rough terrain construction task, and to supply remote area jobs sites. For increased work handling versatility, it boosts exceptional hot-high altitude operating characteristic.
The Version of Bell 412 and Nbell-412 :
-Search And Rescue
-Medical Support/Ambulance Mission
-Oil Industry Operations
-Law Enforcement Operations
see CH-146 Griffon
Jamaica Defence Force
Indonesian Air Force
Royal Netherlands Air Force
Royal Norwegian Air Force
Philippine Air Force
Slovenian Air Force and Air Defence
Republic of Korea Air Force: First introduction Time : March, 1982.
Sri Lanka Air Force
Royal Thai Air Force
United Arab Emirates
Royal Air Force
Air Force of Zimbabwe
and others country.
The CASA/IPTN CN-235 is a medium-range twin-engined transport plane that was jointly developed by CASA of Spain and IPTN of Indonesia ( Now Indonesia Aerospace ) as a regional airliner and military transport. Its primary military roles include maritime patrol, surveillance, and air transport. Its largest user is Turkey which has 61 SV-235 aircraft.
In Indonesia there are 3 version :
1 and 2 . CN-235 Civil and Military version
The CN-235-220 Civil Version is a multiple commuter and utility aircraft in the regional transport. This aircraft readily meets all the requirements for passenger and utility operations. It offers : multi-role, quiets conversion capability, low operating costs, independent operation from ground equipment, short take-off and landing capability on short and unimproved runways.
As the CN-235 is a multipurpose aircraft, this also designed to fulfill the requirements of all light cargo military/civil operations.
The significant characteristic are as follows : quick turn around time, quick change from passenger configuration to cargo configuration, quick change from civil version to military version, STOL feature and outstanding performance in hot and high take off conditions, able to operate on unprepared airstrip, and easy maintenance.
3. CN-235 Maritime Patrol Aircraft
IAe’s CN 235-220 Maritime Patrol Aircraft is an efficient and cost-effective for detecting, locating, classifying, identifying and recording targets to satisfy numerous missions, as well as :
Exclusive Economic Zone Control
Pollution Control and Monitoring
Marine Traffic Control
Search and Rescue
Prevention of Smuggling, Terrorism and Piracy
Anti Surface Vessel / Anti Submarine Warfare
Protecting the Sovereignty of the Country
The CN 235-220 sophisticated and advanced multi purpose platform is an optimal combination of medium range capability, spacious cabin and fully integrated mission avionics.
With its pressurized cabin and two high powered General Electric CT7-9C engines driving four bladed Hamilton Standard Propeller, the aircraft's 4,000 kg fuel capacity allows a flight endurance of between 8 to 10 hours.
These features, together with its Short Take-off and Landing (STOL) capability and Maximum Take-Off Weight (MTOW) of 16,100 kg, will meet above mention mission requirements.
The Operators :
Korean Air Force Military Transport & V I P
TUDM Malaysia Military Transport & V I P
Pakistan Air Force Military Transport & V I P
UAE Air Force Military Transport & V I P
Royal Brunei Air Force Military Transport
Indonesian Air Force Military Transport & MPA
Burkina Faso Military Transport
Merpati Nusantara Airlines Passenger Transport
Air Venezuela Passenger Transport
Asian Spirit (the Philippines) Passenger Transport
MOAC Thailand Rain Making
2.Able to Operate on Unprepared Airfields
3.Easy Loading and Unloading Operations through Ramp Door
4.Low Maintenance Cost
6.High Visibility Windscreen
3.Maritime Patrol Aircraft
4.Anti Submarine Warfare
Take-off Distance 1,037 m
Landing Distance 1,068 m
Max Speed 230 knots
Long Range Speed 213 knots
Service Ceiling (AEO) 7,924 m
Overall Span 25.81 m
Overall Length 21.40 m
Overall Height 8.17 m
Wheel Tack 3.90 m
Wheel Base 6.92 m
Cabin Volume 41.88 m3
Two General Electric CT7-9C Turboprop Engines
Two four-bladed Hamilton Standard HS 14 RF-21 propellers
- Max. Taxi Weight 16,550 kg
- Max. Take-off Weight 16,500 kg
- Max. Landing Weight 16,500 kg
- Max. Zero Fuel Weight 15,400 kg
- Max. Fuel Capacity 4,000 kg